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Grade 3 Mathematics

This course builds on the Grade 2 curriculum to further develop students’ understanding of fundamental mathematical concepts by exploring topics related to number, coding, algebra, data, spatial sense, social-emotional learning skills in mathematics, and financial literacy.

Throughout the course, students will be encouraged to build their social-emotional learning skills by focusing specifically on real-world problems and solutions that different individuals might encounter. They will practice different ways of exploring problems in order to find solutions that best suit their level of understanding and come to recognize that different people may arrive at solutions by using a variety of unique tools and strategies.

Regarding numbers, students will become familiar with numbers up to 1000 by counting, representing, identifying, comparing, and ordering different numbers according to different problem sets. They will learn how to break down numbers in different ways.

In algebra, students will use different strategies and tools to help them address number problems. They will use whole numbers and fractions to explore algebra, addition and subtraction, multiplication and division, and patterning. They will use real-life problems and algebraic reasoning skills to explore relationships, patterns, and expressions. They will also write code in order to perform repeating operations as a further exploration of repeating patterns.

In data, students will learn how to collect, organize, display, and organize data. They will use surveys, graphs, charts, and tables in order to inform decisions, make predictions, and draw conclusions. They will employ statistical analysis techniques and explore probability in order to make predictions.

In spatial sense, students will develop skills by exploring shapes and measurement. They will identify, sort, compare, and construct a variety of 2D and 3D shapes. They will also describe the movement of different shapes by exploring flips, turns, and slides on a coordinate plane. Students will explore measurements of length, height, distance, perimeter, area, mass, and capacity in a variety of different units and contextual situations. They will also learn how to tell time on both digital and analog clocks.

In financial literacy, students will continue to develop their understanding of money by familiarizing themselves with different bills, coins, and interactions that require calculating change. They will estimate, calculate, add, subtract, and show equivalency for different money amounts in a variety of true to life problem sets.

Through investigation of real-life problems, students develop a strong foundation of mathematical knowledge and skills. Students apply mathematical processes and build transferrable critical thinking skills in varied teaching and consolidation activities that appeal to diverse learning styles. Students participate in engaging storylines along with characters who connect their learning to real-world contexts and build confidence by instilling a positive attitude towards mathematics. Various opportunities consolidate students’ learning through technology and offline activities, including tactile manipulatives, to reinforce essential mathematical strategies and tools. The course has a strong focus on reinforcing number sense and numeracy skills. It also provides various activities for practice throughout. This course prepares students for grade 4 mathematics.

Full Grade 3 Mathematics Course Outline

Course Code: MAT3
Curriculum Policy Document: The Ontario Curriculum: Grade 3 Mathematics
Department: Primary
Course Developer: Virtual Elementary School
Development Date: 2020


Students will initially explore reading and writing numbers up to 100 before practicing skip counting by 50s, 100s, and 200s. They will practice representing, comparing and ordering numbers up to 1000 and develop an understanding of the relationships among the numbers 1, 10, 100, and 1000. Students will explore the place values of four-digit numbers and practice composing and decomposing three-digit numbers using a variety of different tools and strategies. Lastly, students will learn how to round two-digit numbers to the nearest ten using a variety of different tools.

Addition and Subtraction

Through modelling, exploration, and the use of different tools and strategies, students will become familiar with solving addition and subtraction problems with two- and three-digit numbers. They will explore the relationships between addition and subtraction using fact families and problems that require finding the missing number in an equation. They will also use estimation to explore plausible answers to addition and subtraction problems.


Students will identify, describe, create, and extend repeating patterns that involve shapes and numbers. They will also create number patterns with addition and explore different characteristics of simple geometric patterns.


Students will begin by sorting data and objects according to certain properties. They will then practice collecting, organizing, and displaying data according to different recording, and graphing techniques. They will practice reading data in charts, tables, and different kinds of graphs. They will be introduced to means and modes in data sets and will practice using data to answer questions. Probability experiments will be conducted in order to further data collection and recording skills and to practice making predictions.

Fractions, Multiplication, and Division

Students will begin by dividing whole objects, or groups of objects into equal parts. Using a variety of different tools, students will explore equivalent fractions. Students will spend most of the unit exploring multiplying and dividing numbers from 1 to 10. They will use a variety of different manipulatives, tools, patterns, rules, and strategies to help solve real-world multiplication and division problems.


Students will identify, describe, sort, and compare different polygons, prisms, and pyramids. They will build and describe the properties of various 2D and 3D shapes before exploring movement through flips, turns, slides, and congruency.


Students will begin coding by exploring sequential and concurrent events. Next, they will create a code using repeating events. Lastly, they will focus on debugging code.


Students will begin by familiarizing themselves with different values of coins and bills. They extend their practice with money by estimating, counting, and showing different values using coins and bills. In order to demonstrate an understanding of equivalency, students will use a variety of combinations of coins and bills interchangeably to compose specific dollar amounts. They will also practice adding and subtracting dollar amounts in a variety of real-world contexts.


Students will explore measurements of length, height, distance, perimeter, area, mass, and capacity according to a variety of different units and real-world contextual situations. They will draw and record different measures and select appropriate units in order to describe or communicate different measures. They will estimate, order, and compare different objects based on properties related to measurement.

The Final Grade (Facilitated)

Student evaluation in this course is based on the student's achievement of curriculum expectations. The final letter grade represents the quality of the student's overall fulfillment of the expectations for the course, and the grade reflects the corresponding level of achievement as described in the achievement chart for the discipline. The final grade reflects the student’s most consistent level of achievement across all units in the course, although special consideration is given to more recent evidence of achievement. Students are not required to write a final exam in this course.